The Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation


The Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation is the result of a research project at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, conducted from 2010 to 2016 and funded by NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research).

The Amsterdam Database collects all known conjectures on the Greek New Testament, as well as an important part of the reception history of these conjectures.

A more extensive introduction to the project and the database will be made available during the SBL annual conference in San Antonio, November 2016.


With the Nestle editions up to NA27 (1993), scholars had access to only a very small part of New Testament conjectures, and even this small collection was very limited: the criteria for inclusion remained unclear, and for each conjecture only an author’s name—presumably of the earliest author—and the conjectured reading were given. When in NA28 (2012) it was decided to omit all conjectures from the apparatus, the Amsterdam project was already underway, and so the NA28 Introduction could announce the publication of the conjectures in a more satisfying digital form. In the end the teams in Münster and Amsterdam agreed that the best place for publication was to be the NT.VMR website.


The website itself should be easy to navigate, but some elements require a brief explanation.

On first load a box is given in which either a New Testament reference or a conjecture ID can be entered. The latter, e.g. cj10374, are unique identifiers for each conjecture record. For New Testament verses and ranges, standard English book names and abbreviations will find the relevant conjecture records, for instance:

John 3:16

Rom 8

Matt 1:1-18


Rev 1-2

Conjecture records have a unique, stable ID, such as cj10374, which is to be used for reference as well.

Many conjecture records also have a reception history in the database, accessed by selecting the row. Then a second table on the bottom of the page is opened.

In both tables, the icon next to the “Short Reference” when clicked shows the full title of the source.

If there is an icon in the “Rem.” (= “Remarks”) column, it can be clicked to consult the remarks by our team. These are often useful for background information on the record.

Similarly, an icon in the “Cit.” (= “Citation”) column provides the original citation found in the source mentioned in the record.

Four small columns provide information on the kind of the conjecture records and some more:

E. (“Editorial Alternative”) is marked when the conjecture record actually contains a proposal that does not alter the uncial text written without punctuation, accents and word divisions.

A. (“Attested”) is marked when the conjecture has been found to be attested in Greek manuscripts (in the case of editorial alternatives, A is marked by default).

N. (“Nestle”) is marked when the conjecture is mentioned in the apparatus of one or more of the Nestle editions since 1898. In that case the remarks provide more information.

M. (“Misunderstood”) is marked when the author attributed with the conjecture was actually misunderstood, so that the case is not a conjecture after all, but has been held to be one at some moment in history. Here as well the remarks provide more information.


The team responsible for the project consists of Jan Krans, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Bart Kamphuis, Silvia Castelli, and Karin Neutel, and has been assisted by Susan Doodeman, Jolyn Nijsink, Noortje Blokhuis, Riekelt Woort, Theo van Beek, Albert Wubs, and An-Ting Yi.


We thank the Münster INTF team for its hospitality and collaboration. Holger Strutwolf and Klaus Wachtel encouraged and helped us in many ways, and Troy A. Griffitts proved able to turn our data into a web-accessible form.


Users are invited to contribute to the website by means of a feedback function, which will create a Forum post.

How to refer to the database

The database can be cited as follows:

Jan Krans, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, et al. (eds.), The Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation (

Individual conjecture records can be referred to by means of their cjID, e.g. cj10374 for Erasmus’ conjecture on Jas 4:2. A web link to that record is

A web link to a New Testament verse range is possible as well, e.g. 1:17 for the conjecture records on Acts 1:17.

Records of the reception history can be referred to by means of sID’s, e.g. s23860 for Zwingli’s acceptance of Erasmus’ conjecture on Jas 4:2. As web link to a reception history record the same link can be used as for the conjecture to which it belongs.