for the use of the
Instructions for the Transcription
of New Testament Manuscripts
Translated by H.A.G. Houghton, version 1.0 (2.10.2013)
based on Guidelines Version I
01. August 2013
I. First Steps
1. Transcribing in the NT Virtual Manuscript Room
The transcription of New Testament manuscripts in the Virtual Manuscript Room (NT.VMR 2.0 - http://ntvmr.uni-muenster.de) requires the following steps:
1. Log in with e-mail address and password: new users must then set up an account. The necessary verification code and an initial password will be sent by e-mail.
2. Click on Transcribing in the central menu. At this point, the Transcription Editor appears on the left, which will be used to carry out the transcription, and on the right a window with a list (the Liste Catalog).
3. Selection of Manuscript: in the Liste Catalog, on the Manuscripts tab, in the box under under Quick Lookup enter the five-digit ID-Number of the desired manuscript. This number consists of two parts, the single-digit manuscript type (1 for Papyrus, 2 for Majuscule, 3 for Minuscule, 4 for Lectionary) and the four-digit form of the Gregory Aland number:
Type of Manuscript
P74 = 10074
02 = 20002
1 = Papyrus
2 = Majuscule
3 = Minuscule
4 = Lectionary
Always four digits, based on the Gregory-Aland number.
Alternatively, the manuscript can be selected using the Gregory-Aland (GA) number (e.g. P74, 02, 1729).
Start the search by clicking on .
Tip: In order to find a manuscript quickly, it can be registered under Favorites. To do this, in the Results list, click on the white star on the right. This will then become a yellow star , indicating an entry in the list of favourites. (It can be removed form the favourites list in the same way.) To access the favourites list, simply click on the Favorites tab in the Liste Catalog.
4. Opening the page to be transcribed. When you click on the ID-Number in Results (or the Favourites tab), all pages of that manuscript will be listed in an overview. The PageID column gives the scan number followed, when present, by the Page/Folio number in brackets; for indexed manuscripts, the Contents column provides the biblical coverage; the Image column contains a thumbnail. Click on the required page, and the corresponding text will be opened in the Editor.
5. If the text does not appear automatically, it can be supplied by clicking on the From Basetext button on the bottom right of the Transcription Editor. If the manuscript has already been indexed, the relevant portion of text will be supplied from the base text (= NA28).
If the manuscript has not been indexed, a field will open with the title Provide Bible Verse Content, in which the biblical coverage of that page should be entered, which will then appear from the base text.
6. The base text uploaded into the editor can be increased manually by supplying individual verses at either end: click on Append +1 for the following verse and Prepend +1 for the preceding verse.
7. Pages which are already transcribed are indicated in the PageID column with ; untranscribed pages with.
8. The images are opened in a separate window by clicking on the button on the right of the thumbnail. Multiple images can be opened. The size of the image can be increased or decreased using the mouse wheel (or two fingers on a Mac).
9. The transcription should be made using the Greek keyboard "GreekLS Classical". Information about its layout is provided in Appendix 1.
2. Menu options
The row of icons provides functions for editing text (the images on the left) and the transcription (the letters on the right).
Symbol for text editing
Undo last action
Apple + Z
Redo last action
Apple + Y
Insert custom character
Apple + S
Apple + P
Apple + X
Apple + C
Apple + V
Toggle fullscreen mode
Symbol for transcription
Alt + Apple + B
Alt + Apple + C
Deficiency (damaged or difficult-to-read text)
Alt + Apple + U
(à Uncertain Letters)
Alt + Apple + G
Abbreviated text (nomina sacra and numerals)
Alt + Apple + A
Alt + Apple + M
Alt + Apple + N
Verse Modify (change numbering for Book, Chapter and/or Verse)
Alt + Apple + V
Most of these functions are indicated by some form of markup (e.g. coloured letters) in the editor surrounded by a red box. Further information is displayed as a mouse-over box.
The markup can be deleted by placing the cursor in the relevant red box and selecting the Delete option. Alternatively, the transcriber can use the Backspace-button on the keyboard.
For the textual comparison of each manuscript with another (collation), the state of text of each manuscript must be reproduced in full (along with information on the layout). Every difference from the base text must be recorded, such as orthographic, itacistic, grammatical and lexical variations as well as erroneous readings, additions and omissions. The base text remains unaltered only when it accords exactly with the manuscript to be transcribed.
The transcription is made page-by-page, i.e. its contents precisely match the contents of the corresponding page (folio) of the manuscript. (This also applies when a correction at the end of the page is continued on the following page.)
The following information is supplied as part of the base text (Nestle–Aland, 28th edition, without accents, breathing and punctuation):
- PB = the number of the page/folio
- CB = the column number (beginning with 1); also necessary for manuscripts with only one column
- the first line break
- book number (violet) – following the sequence in Nestle-Aland (Matt. = 1; 1 John = 23)
- chapter number (dark grey, large)
- verse number (light grey, small)
- the text is structured by verse number, and contains commonly encountered nomina sacra. The final sigma ς (= keystroke w) is used (contrary to the practice of manuscripts).
Pagination/Folio numbering (Page break), Column numbering (Column break), Lines (Line break) und Quire numbering (Quire)
The “Pages” of a manuscript are generally numbered by folio (leaf), differentiated by recto (the right-hand side of an open book) and verso (the left side). These appear in the editor as “r” and “v” (e.g. 71r und 71v).
Papyri are differentiated by the direction of the fibres on each side (Papyrus fibre): horizontally → and vertically ↓ (in the editor these are represented by x and y).
If there is no folio numbering or each side is numbered separately, the (modern) system of pagination (with no distinction between recto and verso) is applied.
If the manuscript contains a further system of page or folio numeration, this can be recorded using the "Marginalia" menu (see below).
Note: The folio numbers in the VMR derive from a predefined system and must not be changed. Incorrect indexing should be corrected.
Columns refer to the vertical sections in which the text of a manuscript is divided. In the base text, the first Column break (CB 1) is automatically provided (required for single-column manuscripts). For multiple-column manuscripts, each subsequent Column break must be inserted; the numeration is supplied automatically (CB 2; CB 3 ...). The folio or page numbers need not be repeated.
At the beginning of each line of the manuscript, a line break should be entered (carriage return ↵). All line breaks will be automatically numbered. There is no line break at the end of a page (for the encoding of words split between two pages, see below).
A line may begin or end with a space (space bar) (see Word Division).
Verse Division at the end of a page
If a verse begins at the end of a page or folio and finishes on the next page, it should be marked as partial. The cursor should be placed over the corresponding verse number; a right-click opens a menu, in which "Partial (initial portion)" should be selected. The corresponding verse number on the next page should be marked with "Partial (final portion)" in the same way. Both verse numbers will be coloured green. This can be undone using the "Remove partial information" in the same menu.
- at the end of a line: If a line break is entered in the middle of a word (indicated by a carriage return ↵), a hyphen appears automatically.
- in corrections: Line breaks should be marked in the first hand and corrector readings as they appear in the manuscript. On the division of corrected words at the end of a page, see "Corrections" / "Extent of correction".
- at the end of a page: Word divisions at the end of a page are encoded in two stages:
1. A line break should be inserted into the last word on the page, so that the hyphen automatically appears, followed by a carriage return on the next line. The second half of the word should be deleted from this page (like the remaining words in the verse). The verse number should be marked as "Partial (Initial portion)" (see above, “Verse Division at the end of a page”.)
Note: The final line break must be allowed to stand even though there is no corresponding blank line in the manuscript.
2. On the next page, where the word is completed, place the cursor on the Page break (PB). Clicking with the right-hand mouse button opens a menu with the option Previous page ends with a hyphenated word, which should be selected.
A hyphen should appear at the beginning of the page. The second part of the split word should be inserted after the verse number. Once the page has been saved, the word "Cont." (= continuous text) appears after the verse number: both are coloured green (as an indication of a partial verse: see above, “Verse Division at the end of a page”.)
If a word in a manuscript has been altered by the copyist or by a later hand, the original reading should be recorded in the running text and then marked up. The smallest unit is a word (not a part-word), although phrases and even whole sentences can be corrected.
Exception: If the original reading is an omission (omissio, blank), the text of the first corrector reading should be written and then marked up (see below).
The mark-up of the text is made through the Correction menu. In the left-hand section (List of corrections) the reading is set by default to “corrector”. On the right, all the information relating to the correction on the left is provided (Information about the reading).
If a word has been subject to multiple alterations, each stage of alteration must be added as a different entry, using the New button on the List of corrections, with the corresponding information entered on the right.
The drop-down menu Type of reading offers the options to specify whether the alteration is a correction, a commentary reading or an alternative reading (gloss). The default is set to Correction.
A reading is defined as a correction if a corrector, or group of correctors, or the copyist has deliberately put something in the place of an original form. The intervention may take the form of erasure, expunction (dots above or below), brackets, strikethrough, or an alteration (using small letters, numbers, or dashes such as /,//,///). Sometimes, a cross-reference symbol (signe de renvoi) such as ·/. is used to link the reading with an insertion in the margin. Correction may also indicate readings which are entered between the lines (interlinear) or in the margin (marginal) even if there are no explicit deletion markings around the original reading.
- Commentary reading:
Commentary readings occur principally in Catena manuscripts (commentary manuscripts) in which there is biblical text (lemma) and commentary. They are marked as readings which differ from the lemma. It is not necessary to read the whole commentary, but only compare the part of the commentary which is marked as biblical text (e.g. by rubrication or cross-reference signs).
Sometimes, additions in the margin of a manuscript may be considered as commentary readings, where a copyist (or later editor) offers a clarification. These are mostly alternative or explanatory words (particularly affecting proper nouns). It can often be difficult to distinguish between these and genuine corrections, which are also found in the margin, so a brief note (see below) is necessary.
- Alternative reading:
An alternative reading is found only in minuscules (and some majuscules). It consists of a marginal reading which is explicitly marked as an alternative (varia lectio), through indications such as:
- “εν αλλοις (αντιγραφοις)”,
- “εν αλλω (αντιγραφω)” or
- ”γρ(αφεται)” or “γεγρ(απται)“.
First hand reading:
The original reading in the right-hand part of the correction box (marked in green) corresponds to the information given in the transcription. If the original text is an omission, then the box next to Blank first hand should be ticked.
A correction may be assigned to different hands:
- First hand:
Often it is possible to establish that the copyist themselves
was responsible for a correction during the process of copying. This often
affects the beginning of words, which are left unfinished and replaced by
another: the original reading often makes no sense, and a later corrector would
not have the blank space necessary in the line to correct it. The script should
be the same as the rest of the text, and should be part of the usual line, not
written above or below (e.g.: ποιηται
νομου). If it not clear that the copyist is
responsible, corrector should be used.
- Corrector1, Corrector2, Corrector3:
There may be various correctors (or groups of correctors) in the manuscript which can clearly be differentiated from each other and put in order (e.g. through the colour of the ink or the type of script). These may be identified using these labels (or other, which makes it possible to create a label for a hand).
Place of correction (optional)
A correction may be inserted in the following places in a manuscript:
- Page top margin
- Page bottom margin
- Page left margin
- Page right margin
- Column top margin
- Column bottom margin
- Column left margin
- Column right margin
- Line left margin
- Line right margin
- immediately above the original word (Above line)
- immediately below the original word (Below line)
- in the same place as the original word (Overwritten text)
- in another place (other); a note should be provided in the box to the right of the menu.
Method of deletion (optional):
An original reading may be deleted in the following ways:
- Vertical line
If a single corrector has used different methods of deletion for the same words, the CTRL (or Apple) key can be used to select more than one option from this menu.
Extent of correction
As a rule, corrections are always indicated for complete words only. However, if a correction involves a word split over a page, the menus Extent of first hand and Extent of correction allow an incomplete word to be marked as “Partial (beginning)” at the end of one page and “Partial (end)” at the beginning of the next, using the same logic as words split over pages (see above).
The text of the correction is pre-loaded with the text of the first-hand reading in a part of the window with the same menus as the editor itself. This should be altered to correspond to the text of the correction.
If the correction is a deletion of the first-hand reading, the box “Total deletion” should be ticked.
- Line breaks should be recorded in the first-hand reading and in the correction
- Corrections spanning a verse boundary: if there is a correction which affects more than one verse, the verse number should not be deleted. Instead, the corrections for each verse should be entered separately, always with the first-hand reading and the correction(s). For omissions and deletions, the repetition of "Blank first hand" or "Total deletion" may be required.
- For the order in which corrections and other functions should be indicated, see Appendix II.
- 3. Deficiency: Lacunae and unclear text
Unclear letters, i.e. letters which are so damaged or faded that they could represent multiple forms, are marked as Uncertain letters (indicated by underdots in the Editor). If a letter is partially preserved but is still unambiguous (e.g. half an Omega), it is not marked as unclear.
The Unclear dialogue box also contains an optional drop-down menu which allows the reason for the uncertainty to be specified (e.g. Poor image, Faded ink, Damage to page, or Other).
Note: In order to select a single letter to be marked, the Adaptive selection box at the bottom left-hand corner of the editor must not be ticked.
If the text of the manuscript is lacunose, the corresponding portion should be marked as a gap. A distinction is made between physical lacunae, when the original material has been lost, and illegible letters when the material is still present but the text is unreadable through fading or patching (or a poor-quality image).
Unit/Extent of gaps
If it is not possible to reconstruct the original text, the gap is marked by size. The corresponding base text should be deleted, and on the Gap menu, the size should be specified by unit (Character or Line) and the number of such units (Extent). In this case, the Mark as supplied box is not ticked.
If an entire verse is lacking, the corresponding verse number is deleted. The chapter number is only deleted if an entire chapter is lacking.
The gap is indicated in the Editor in red brackets. Providing details of book, chapter and verse (as an editorial note) is optional.
A physical gap, measured in characters or lines, is the primary form of gap. Additionally, it is possible to add an additional “textual gap”, measured in verses (or chapters or books), but this is primarily for use in collation rather than transcription and should always be added alongside a physical gap.
Text which is supplied to fill a gap should be highlighted in the editor and then marked up using the Gap menu. The “Mark as supplied” box should be ticked. The reconstruction is based on the base text (= NA28), which is set by default. The reconstructed text is shown in red in the editor and placed in square brackets.
If the lacuna cannot be filled with the wording of the base text, i.e. when it seems that there were more or fewer letters in the manuscript, the size of the gap should be indicated with the number of missing letters.
The transcriber also has the option of making their own reconstruction (marked as Transcriber query on the drop-down menu) or using the Majority Text (Textus receptus) as a source.
- If at least one letter is extant on a line, there is the possibility of reconstructing the missing text for that line.
Exception: If part of the missing text belongs to a verse which is completely absent, it will not be reconstructed. The reconstructed text begins with the verse number in which the first letter or letters are preserved.
- Physical lacunae must be distinguished from Omissions. These are places in which words are present in the base text which were not included by the copyist of the manuscript; their absence is not due to damage to the material.
Gaps of words: If the extent of the omitted text is less than one verse, the words are simply deleted from the base text.
Gaps of verses: If a complete verse is omitted, the verse number must be kept in the transcription. (This is different from the treatment of lacunae.) If a sequence of verses is omitted, the verse numbers should follow each other on the same line.
Fragments: If a fragment begins in the middle of a verse – and also in the middle of a word – the preceding verse number must be marked as: Partial (final portion). The cursor should be placed over the verse number, and the option selected by right-clicking on the number[H2]. The same is true of a fragment which ends before the final word of a verse, when the verse number should be marked as Partial (initial portion). In both cases, the verse numbers appear in the Editor in green.
Note: If at least one letter is extant on a line (e.g. in the case of fragments), there is the possibility of reconstructing the whole line according to the base text (supplied text) if it corresponds to the length of the lacuna. In other cases, the extent of the gap should be roughly calculated based on the number of missing letters. In any case, the beginning and end of a fragment must not be reconstructed: the transcription should begin and end with the extant letters and the portions either side be indicated by the partial verse indications (in green).
If the beginning or end of lines are missing (as in the case of some fragments), the remaining text will be “centred”, based on the scale provided by the longest extant line. The beginnings and ends of the lines will be reconstructed (supplied text).
- The end of an entire manuscript can be indicated by the option Witness end, but this is not necessary in a transcription.
- For the sequence in which lacunae and other functions should be noted, see Appendix II.
- If portions of text are written in a particular colour, this can be indicated in the editor. The options available are Red (Rubrication), Gold (Gold) and Other.
- Words (or letters) decorated with lines above can also be recorded (Overline). [Beware!: Overlines which indicate nomina sacra or numerals should be handled using the Abbreviated text menu.]
- Outsize capital letters/Initials at the beginning of a passage can be recorded using the Capitals option. The Height of the capitals is expressed as the number of lines of ordinary script on the page corresponding to the height of the capital.
This information is optional.
Displaced text/“tucked-under” lines
If the text at the end of a line is added in blank space above or below, it should be transcribed as part of the line to which it belongs. However, its position may be marked using the Displaced text menu with the following options:
- Other (further details to be provided in a text box)
- For the sequence in which this and other functions should be noted, see Appendix II.
5. Abbreviated text
The concept of “Abbreviation” in the Editor refers only to words which are marked as an abbreviation by the use of an overline, i.e. nomina sacra and numerals. For other abbreviations and tachygraphic symbols, see below.
The exact letters written on the page should be highlighted and marked using the menu Abbreviated text. The following options are available in the drop-down menu Type of abbreviation:
- Nomina sacra are abbreviations for very common words which are indicated by an overline. If only an overline is extant, the reconstructed letters below are indicated with underdots. [H3]The most common nomina sacra are listed in the palaeographic database "intf.uni-muenster.de/NT_PALAEO", in which the abbreviation can be entered in roman characters.
If the nomen sacrum is missing the overline, the letters should be transcribed but the Add overline to highlighted text should be unticked. Similarly, if a word has been written in full but also supplied with a nomen sacrum overline, this box should be ticked.
- Numerals should be transcribed in the customary manner and marked up in through the menu.
- For the sequence in which abbreviations and other functions should be noted, see Appendix II.
The following marginal elements can be inserted:
- Commentary text (catena manuscripts)
Certain manuscripts contain commentary material as well as biblical text. These may either surround the margins of the biblical text (Rahmenkatene; marginal commentary) or alternate with paragraphs of biblical text (Textkatene; linear commentary).
The biblical text and commentary in linear commentaries may be distinguished from each other by:
· the colour of the ink
· the use of diplai in the margin (> or >>) alongside the biblical text
· the use of large initials or special signs (e.g. +++) for the beginning of the biblical text
· the indication of κει(μενον) at the beginning of the biblical text and ερμ(ηνια) for the commentary.
Marginal commentaries are transcribed as continuous texts, while in lineated commentaries the lines with commentary text are indicated using the Commentary text function on the Marginalia menu. The number of lines covered by the commentary should be entered into the appropriate box, and the symbol [comm] will then appear on the relevant lines in the editor. If a commentary begins on the same line that the biblical text ends, the Number of lines covered field should be left blank. The subsequent lines which begin with commentary text should be numbered; if the biblical text resumes on the same line as the commentary, this may be matched in the editor.
This menu permits the insertion of lectionary markings such as αρχη and τελος and Lectionary titles.
- The following marginalia are optional and not included in INTF transcriptions:
· Running title
· Chapter number
· Chapter title
· Lectionary title
· Quire signature
· Ammonian Section number
· Eusebian canon
· Page number (as written)
Certain observations, such as unclear letters or abnormalities in manuscript, can be expressed with the help of the Note function. The cursor should be placed at the end of the word to which the note relates.
There are several types of note:
- Editorial note. These will be visible in the published electronic transcriptions.
- Local note. These are for transcribers to raise queries, but will not be published.
- Canon reference. An optional way of providing the biblical reference for numbered canons.
- Change of hand. Details of the new hand shoul dbe provided in Identifier for new hand.
Editorial Note may also be used when there is uncertainty about a correction which cannot be expressed using underdots or gaps (for example, words in the margin which may supply omissions). In these cases, the words "Ut videtur" are used, with a short explanation.
Add punctuation: this menu can be used to add punctuation and other symbols such as diple or obelos from a predefined list.
The most common punctuation (. , ; : ·) may be entered directly with the keyboard. The middle dot is formed with the combination alt + shift + 9. A box automatically appears around punctuation in the editor.
Note: Punctuation is only transcribed in Papyri and Majuscules, not in Minuscules.
Blank spaces: If an unusual space appears in the manuscript, either between two words or as an area of blank material, this may be recorded. The size is described in terms of the number of corresponding letters (Char) or lines (Line). This is optional.
9. Verse Modification
Deletion and insertion of Book, Chapter and Verse numbers:
Book, chapter and verse numbers cannot be deleted using the keyboard. Instead this menu must be used. (Note that the verse number must be left in the transcription when an entire verse is omitted.) To remove one or more verse numbers completely, the relevant options in the dialogue box should be ticked: clicking on OK will removed them from the transcription. The Insert verse number option will insert a missing verse number at the same point as the cursor.
Book and chapter numbers can be treated in the same way, although it is expected that all pages will start with the book and chapter number with which the page begins.
Insertion of Inscriptio and Subscriptio
Titles at the beginning and end of a book in a manuscript (which used to be allocated a fictitious verse number) may be added through this menu. The Inscriptio should be added after the book number and before the first chapter number, while the Subscriptio comes at the end of the final verse. Along with the marker in grey, placeholder text appears in the editor (“place the incipit here”) which should be deleted and replaced with the manuscript reading:
Abbreviations should be recorded, with the supplied text placed in brackets, e.g. ιω(αννης).
10. General observations
a. Transcription Editor:
- Version History:
This window lists transcriptions of the page which have already been saved. It is possible to go back to an earlier version from here (with the appropriate permissions).
- Adaptive selection:
If this box is ticked, only whole words can be selected in the editor.
- Language selection
Choice of menu language as English or German.
- Ending a transcription:
On ending a page of transcription, for example by changing the image, the transcription will be saved automatically[H4]. However, users are recommended to save their word regularly by clicking on the disk icon or using the shortcut Apple + S.
Tachygraphic symbols, ligatures (combinations of two or more letters) and abbreviations in the text (e.g. using superscript letters to represent omitted syllables) should be expanded in the transcription. A list of the most common abbreviations and their expansion may be found at: http://intf.uni-muenster.de/NT_PALAEO/
εστι‾ = εστιν
του αγ αποστολ = του αγιου αποστολου
του ιωανν = του ιωαννου
Sometimes, letters at the end of a line are replaced by a diagonal stroke (slash). This does not represent particular letters, but is governed by the context: the reading is determined from the context (e.g. by the preceding article) and letters are supplied as appropriate.
If the intended reading is not clear, the supplied letters should be added in parentheses:
αυτ = αυτ(oυ) or αυτ(ων)
- Special signs:
- Accents and breathings are not usually transcribed. The exception is when an accent or breathing is the only distinction between a word or form, such as μένει oder μενεῖ in 1John 2:14.
- The trema (diairesis) is not transcribed.
- Iota adscript is transcribed (αυτωι) , but Iota subscript is not (αυτῳ).
Supplements are pages which were added to a manuscript at a later period in order to supply missing material. They generally consist of complete leaves (rarely parts of a leaf) and can be recognised by the change of script, as well as differences in the number of lines and columns.
In the VMR, supplements are given separate manuscript numbers and should be transcribed for these entries.
If a manuscript changes hand in the middle of a page (e.g. only a lower set of lines is supplied), this should be indicated using the menu Note / Change of hand.
Choice of Fonts and Keyboard layout:
In order to change the Greek base text, a Greek keyboard is necessary.
In Mac OS X, this is set up as follows:
The following files must be loaded on the Hard Disk:
Library/Keyboard Layouts/GreekLS Classical.keylayout
On "System Preferences", in the “Language and Text” option, select “Input sources”:
In the window, “Keyboard & Character Viewer” must be selected, with "GreekLS Classical" below. The “Show Input menu in menu bar” should also be ticked.
The alternation between German and Greek keyboards is seen in:
- the symbols and in the top right hand corner of the screen
- the Shortcut Apple + Spacebar.
Clicking on the symbols also gives the option “Show Character Layout”, where an overview is given of each individual character.
Order of entry of different functions
· Line break + Corrections [+ Highlight text]
· Corrections + Displaced text [+ Highlight text]
· Corrections + Highlight text
· Uncertain letters + Corrections [+ Displaced text] [+ Highlight text]
· Uncertain letters + Displaced text [+ Highlight text]
· Uncertain letters + Highlight text
· Gaps + Corrections [+ Displaced text] [+ Highlight text]
· Gaps + Displaced text [+ Highlight text]
· Gaps + Highlight text
· Abbreviations + Line break [+ Highlight text]
· Abbreviations + Corrections [+ Displaced text] [+ Highlight text]
· Abbreviations + Uncertain letters [+ Corrections] [+ Displaced text] [+ Highlight text]
· Abbreviations + Gap [+ Corrections] [+ Displaced text] [+ Highlight text]
· Abbreviations + Highlight text